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traditional consumers of services may            For example, healthcare will see new
            become producers as well; small and medium       patient-doctor relationships, and will enter
            enterprises increasingly expand their scope      into a new era of diagnosis and therapy
            by being less locally or regionally constrained   based in part on availability and analysis of
            when it comes to offering their services;        information provided by intelligent machine
            manufacturers and service providers are          communications and processing.
            entering into new relationships with their
            customers; mass production is moving towards     Learning, education and skills – Digital
            individualization of products.                   technologies are transforming learning and
                                                             having a major impact on education.
            These developments in the ecosystem of the
            digital world provide for new and disruptive     The ways in which people are accessing and
            business opportunities and competition           retrieving information are changing with the
            between businesses that formerly operated in     global presence of and demand for digital tools
            different markets or what has been regarded      and data repositories, providing almost instant
            as different market sectors.                     access and contribution to knowledge.

            Industry sectors and the role of standards –     Education will play a key role in developing
            ICT, and in particular digital technology, is a   people’s skills to use and make the most out of
            key enabler throughout all industry sectors, to   new ICT technologies, which will be ubiquitous
            the extent that the very concept of industry     in our everyday life. Increasing digital literacy
            sectors is becoming less clear-cut.              creates a virtual circle between market uptake
                                                             and adoption of new technologies and the
            The days where each sector, like automotive,     development of digital skills, where already
            industrial automation and healthcare supports    today “Massive On-line Training” Platforms are
            its own standardization model, responding to     becoming the new way of learning.
            market sector specific requirements, are giving
            way to inter-sector cooperation.

            ICT standards allow for integration and for
            enriching physical layers with cognitive layers,
            including standards that are applicable across
            traditional sector boundaries.

            Cognitive technologies enable new interaction
            models between people and machines, as well
            as between people.

            Policy Trends

            Global level – The digital economy is            and personal privacy, are today addressed
            developing rapidly worldwide. It is the          by policy makers throughout the world. ICT
            single most important driver of innovation,      standards are here considered to be important
            competitiveness and growth in the world.         for supporting such policy objectives and to
                                                             stimulate innovation.
            The digital economy, and the associated need
            for ICT standards are high on the political and   Smart environment, the industrial
            policy agenda in every region of the world.      transformation, cybersecurity and the
            Common concerns, such as environment and         knowledge-driven society, are all areas where
            sustainability or, the balance between security   ICT standards will continue to play an

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