ETSI Summit on 5G Network Infrastructure
Our industry is buzzing with excitement about 5G. We have read the requirements, both high-level and more detailed. We have pored over the numerous white papers. Standardization plans have been carefully set and work is already progressing. But we have mainly focused on the radio technologies needed for 5G. What about the network behind the radio access system? How will the 5G network infrastructure help to meet the overall 5G system requirements, and is it even fit for purpose?
The ETSI summit on 5G Network Infrastructure will take place on 6 April 2017 in ETSI, Sophia Antipolis, France. REGISTRATION IS NOW CLOSED.
About the 2017 ETSI Summit
IMPORTANT INFORMATION: REGISTRATION IS CLOSED. Maximum room capacity has been reached. For further information, please contact ETSI events at email@example.com.
This year’s ETSI Summit will offer a unique opportunity to tackle the many open questions relating to the 5G network infrastructure and the multiple technological developments that will be necessary to meet the requirements of 5G.
The previous ETSI 5G Summit held in April 2016 examined many of the topics relating to 5G, particularly the new use cases that will be supported by the 5G network, as well as the spectrum and radio access aspects. That work would be incomplete without considering the complete 5G end to end architecture.
This 2017 ETSI summit will focus on 5G network infrastructure: the technological solutions that will be needed in order to enable true scalable mobility and to fulfil the ambitious 5G requirements, in terms of performance, reliability, energy efficiency and security. During the event, we will:
- examine how the limitations of the current network architecture may prevent the realization of the 5G requirements,
- hear from 3GPP about their plans for standardization beyond the air interface, and learn their prioritization of work across their four main requirements groups: enhanced mobile broadband, massive IoT, critical communications, and network operations,
- examine the state of development of new or upcoming technology solutions which could influence near-term and longer term 5G work – work which is ongoing both inside and outside of ETSI,
- hear from ETSI’s partners in standardization, those we work directly with inside 3GPP, and other important organizations who will help shape our future 5G networks.
- Standardization, both plans and status, will be the thread running through all of our discussions.
Who should attend, and why?
The annual ETSI Summit brings together key decision makers from ETSI members, including operators, manufacturers, service providers, regulators and policy makers, end-user industry sectors and researchers. It is a unique event, perhaps the only event in the calendar where high-level management can exchange and openly debate about standardization priorities, helping to shape the work of ETSI in the years to come.
Each year we focus on a specific but important aspect of ETSI’s work, perhaps none being as important as the 2017 ETSI Summit topic: 5G network infrastructure standardization.
The event is open to all upon registration.
- Bruno Chatras, ETSI NTECH Chairman, ETSI NFV Vice-Chairman, Orange Labs Networks
- Gerry Foster, 5G Innovation Centre (5GIC), Institute of Communications Systems, University of Surrey
- Simon Hicks, ETSI General Assembly Chairman, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, UK
- Diego Lopez, ETSI NFV Chairman, Telefonica S.A.
- Georg Mayer, 3GPP CT Chairman, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
- Andy Sutton, former ETSI NGP Chairman, BT
- Dirk Weiler, ETSI Board Chairman, Nokia Solutions and Networks GmbH & Co.
- David Boswarthick, Director of CSC, ETSI
Luis Jorge Romero Saro, ETSI Director-General
Simon Hicks, Chairman of ETSI General Assembly
|09:15-10:00||SESSION A: Challenges for the development of the 5G infrastructure
Session Chair: Sue Rudd, Strategy Analytics
|The session will address what needs to be done in the core infrastructure today to support tomorrow’s 5G services.|
|09:15||Setting the scene & overview
Sue Rudd, Strategy Analytics
|09:25||EC perspective on 5G core standardization
Bernard Barani, DG Connect, European Commission
|09:40||Strategic direction of related 5G infrastructure work in 3GPP
Georg Mayer, 3GPP CT Chair
|10:00-10:30||PANEL SESSION: Operators’ priorities for 5G core
Moderator: Sue Rudd, Strategy Analytics
The objective of the panel is to present the Operator’s view on their priorities for developments in the 5G infrastructure and related standards work.Panellists:
|11:00-12:30||SESSION B: Beyond today’s network service management
Session Chair: Diego Lopez, ETSI NFV Chair
|The session will examine how the full automation of network slice management, NFV Management & Orchestration functions must be complemented with slice management functions.|
|11:00||NFV as a 5G infrastructure enabler
Joan Triay, ETSI NFV TSC Chair
|11:20||Towards Intent-driven and Cognitive Network Operations
Laurent Ciavaglia, Network Management Research Group (NMRG) co-chair, Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)
|11:40||Policy based management
John Strassner, Orchestration Area Co-Director, MEF Forum
|12:00||Session B Panel
Panel discussion (30 min) with the speakers, session chair and the audience.
|14:00-15:30||SESSION C: 5G network protocol transformation?
Session Chair: Howard Benn, ETSI Board Member
|The session will examine the required developments of internet protocol stacks, either through enhancements or through a complete re-design; and to hear the current work and opinions of the three most prominent standards groups working on that topic.|
|14:00||Next Generation Protocols: ‘Last chance to change’
Gerry Foster, University of Surrey, Institute of Communications
|14:20||5G Aspects of Next Generation Internet Protocols
Jari Arkko, IETF chair
ITU-T activities on architecture of 5G protocol
Session C Panel
The goal of the panel is to develop the debate on the evolution of the Internet stack and possible areas for standards convergence.
|16:00-17:00||SESSION D: Designing a secure and flexible 5G Core
Session Chair: Patrick Donegan, HardenStance
|The session will examine how rethinking the 5G core network raises other questions and possible evolutions in areas such as Security and Privacy and also the methods of continuous evolution of the 5G Infrastructure|
|16:00||5G Security: Enabling an industrial revolution
Peter Haigh, NCSC
|16:20||Continuous Next Generation Evolution for Virtualised Infrastructure
Kaela Loffler, Netrounds, Member of ETSI Open Source MANO Marketing Task Force
|16:40||Session D Q&A and Panel discussion
FINAL SESSION: Concluding Panel
The final session will provide a summary of the day’s discussions, and seek to develop agreements for action and cooperation.
|17:45||End of Workshop|
Jari Arkko, Chair of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Jari Arkko is a Senior Expert with Ericsson Research. Since 2013 he has also served as the Chair of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet technology standards development organisation. He has published 43 technical specifications (RFCs) at the IETF. As a developer, Jari has worked on cellular systems, 5G, routers, testing tools, AAA systems, and AI. He received his Licentiate’s degree from Helsinki University of Technology in 1996. Jari’s main interests include Internet architecture, the Internet of Things, Internet privacy, Internet governance, and cutting through technology hype. He likes to personally build and use the technology that he works with.
Bernard Barani, DG CONNECT, European Commission
Bernard Barani, DG Connect, European Commission. Bernard Barani graduated from the École Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications de Bretagne in 1982. He then worked as communications engineer in industry on military infrared systems and then with the European Space Agency on advanced satcom programmes. In 1994, he joined the European Commission and was responsible for implementation of research and policy issues in wireless communication, Internet, audio visual systems, Software and Services. He has been Deputy head of unit for research and policy in the field of Internet of Things systems. He is currently Acting Head of unit in charge of research and innovation on Future Connectivity Systems in the CONNECT Directorate General of the European Commission. This covers responsibilities for the definition and implementation of the 5G Policy under the 5G Public Private Partnership and the recently launched 5G Action Plan
Howard Benn, ETSI Board Member
Howard Benn started his career in the fixed telecommunication sector (Plessey) back in 1982, did his degree and PhD at Bradford University, moving into radio based communications in 1989. He started working in ETSI GSM standards committees in 1993, helping create 3GPP and chairing 3GPP RAN 4 from 1998 to 2007. He has been a board member of ETSI since 2008, a member of the ICANN Nomcom in 2013 currently advising the ICANN board on mobile technology, and a member of the Strategy Advisory Board for the UK 5G innovation centre at Surrey University. His current role is ‘Head of Standards and Industrial Affairs’ for Samsung Electronics R&D Institute in the UK, managing a team of engineers covering ETSI, 3GPP, ATSC, GSMA. His team is also very active in the EU Horizon 2020 program with a focus on the 5G PPP activities. He also sits on the UK government advisory committee looking at the future of communications technology in the UK.
David Boswarthick, Director of CSC, ETSI
Member of the Programme Committee
David is currently responsible for the ETSI team supporting the technical organization (TBs and ISGs). Relevant projects include NFV, MEC, NGP and other key activities such as enabling the creation of IoT/M2M standards in collaboration with the European Commission particularly for domains such as Smart Cities. He has been extensively involved in the standardization activities of Machine to Machine, mobile, fixed and convergent networks in both the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). David holds a BEng Honours Degree in Telecommunications Engineering, Plymouth Polytechnic UK, and Master's Degree (DEA) in Networks and Distributed systems from the University of Nice and Sophia Antipolis, France.
Bruno Chatras, ETSI NTECH Chairman, ETSI NFV Vice-Chairman
Member of the Programme Committee
Bruno Chatras is a senior standardization manager at Orange Labs Networks and a member of the Orange experts’ community on Future Networks. He is the Chairman of the ETSI Technical Committee on Network Technologies (NTECH) and a Vice-Chairman of the ETSI Industry Specification Group on Network Functions Virtualisation (ETSI NFV). Bruno joined France Telecom / Orange in 1985, where he started his carrier by developing GSM standards. Since then he held several management positions within Orange, where he led the Intelligent networks R&D Unit and has been Vice-Chairman of the ETSI Technical Committee on NGN and ITU-T Rapporteur for Intelligent Networks.
Laurent Ciavaglia, IRTF Network Management Research Group (NRMG) Co-chair
Laurent Ciavaglia works at Nokia Bell Labs in Paris, France inventing new technologies for networks, turning concepts into real-life innovations. Recently, he is having fun (and some headaches) trying to combine network management and artificial intelligence. Laurent has been involved in and led several European research projects, such as UNIVERSELF developing a unified management framework for autonomic network functions (www.univerself-project.eu). Laurent serves as co-chair of the IRTF Network Management Research Group (NRMG), and participates in the IETF, essentially in the OPS area. Previously, he was vice-chair of the ETSI ISG on Autonomics for Future Internet (AFI), working on the definition of standards for self-managing networks. Laurent has been recently appointed Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE SDN initiative Softwarization newsletter, and acts as Standards Liaison Officer for the IEEE ComSoc Technical Committee on Autonomic Communications (TCAC).
Maria Cuevas, Research and Technology, BT
Maria Cuevas is the head of the research core networks and services team in BT’s Research and Technology organisation. She has 17 years’ experience in the telecoms operator business, having held positions in design, architecture and research organisations. She has taken part in transformational projects in BT, including the development of an all-IP network architecture or the design of the first converged residential voice product offered by BT to their customers, amongst others. She has also participated in standards organisation, including ETSI and is a regular speaker at public conferences. At present, her team focuses on the evolution of 5G technologies to ensure that key requirements like convergence are supported by the next generation of telecoms networks, to ensure that operators can offer an excellent and seamless quality of experience to their customers.
Patrick Donegan, HardenStance Ltd
Patrick Donegan is the Founder and Principal Analyst of HardenStance Ltd, a leading analyst firm providing best in class research, analysis and insight in telecom and IT security.
A lot of Patrick’s research is focused on best practise for telecom operators in securing their own networks and providing security services to end customers. In recent years his research has focused increasingly on the security opportunities and threats presented by the telecom sector’s efforts to evolve to more software controlled networking including the evolution in network security requirements from 4G to 5G.
Patrick has worked in the telecom sector for over 25 years, including in strategic planning roles for Motorola as well as for Nortel’s mobile infrastructure business. Prior to forming HardenStance Ltd in January 2017, he worked for eleven years at Heavy Reading, the last three as Heavy Reading’s Chief Analyst.
Gerry Foster, 5G Innovation Centre, Institute of communications Systems, (ICS), University of Surrey
Member of the Programme Committee
Gerard Foster is a 5G Systems Architect at the 5G Innovation Centre, Institute of communications Systems, (ICS), University of Surrey. Gerard has authored papers in journals and conferences covering communications architecture topics across both fixed and wireless access technologies. His career spans the cellular GPRS, UMTS and LTE generations where he has worked in R&D at GEC, Motorola, Lucent and Teoco, generated more than 30 granted patents and continuously contributed to standards activities at 3GPP, ETSI and the IETF. His current interests include; Next Generation Protocols and Architecture, Content and Context Aware Networks and Telecoms Virtualisation through NFV, SDN and MANO. Gerry is a Chartered Engineer of the IET, and graduated in Communications Engineering from Plymouth University, UK.
Peter Haigh, UK National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC)
Peter Haigh is Technical Director for Telecommunications at the UK’s National Cyber Security Centre. He is responsible for understanding the cyber security risk to the UK’s telecommunications networks and works with major operators and vendors on improving cyber security practice. Peter is also involved in defining the UK government’s approach to secure communications. He attends 3GPP’s security working group, and has helped define the security of 3GPP’s Mission Critical communications standard. Prior to his current role, Peter has a history of performing cryptographic and security evaluations, including evaluating the Blackberry handset for use by UK government over a decade ago. Peter is a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications and studied mathematics at Cambridge University and Nottingham University.
Simon Hicks, ETSI General Assembly Chairman
Member of the Programme Committee
Simon Hicks is the Chairman of the ETSI General Assembly. He is a Principal ICT Technologist in the digital industry team of the UK Administration - Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) and is the first government official to be Chairman of the General Assembly. He is responsible for policy development for standards and technology activity in ICT, electronic communications and cyber security. He is the UK representative to the European Commission Multi-Stakeholder Platform for ICT standards and is active in a range of ICT standards and technology work
Simon is a Chartered Engineer and began his civil service career in the UK defence ministry. He led a team designing and installing radio systems for the air force. He joined the trade and industry ministry in 2002 and has been involved in ICT standards work since then, including membership of the ETSI board. Outside of work Simon is an active member of his church and enjoys walking the family dogs.
Kaela Loffler, Marketing & Industry Alliances, Netrounds
Member, ETSI Open Source MANO Marketing Task Force
Kaela is the Director of Marketing and Industry Alliances for Netrounds and is responsible for driving engaging external communications and branding strategies, as well as translating market expectations to sales engagement support. Prior to Netrounds, Kaela held roles within business development, marketing, and program management, focusing on OEM and technology alliances. Kaela is also a member of the ETSI Open Source MANO Marketing Task Force. She holds a Master of Business Management degree from the University of British Columbia in Canada.
Diego R. Lopez, ETSI NFV Chairman
Member of the Programme Committee
Dr Diego R. Lopez joined Telefonica I+D in 2011 as a Senior Technology Expert on network middleware and services. He is currently in charge of the Technology Exploration activities within the GCTO Unit of Telefónica I+D. Before joining Telefónica he spent some years in the academic sector, dedicated to research on network service abstractions and the development of APIs based on them. During this period he was appointed as member of the High Level Expert Group on Scientific Data Infrastructures by the European Commission.
Diego is currently focused on identifying and evaluating new opportunities in technologies applicable to network infrastructures, and the coordination of national and international collaboration activities. His current interests are related to network virtualization, infrastructural services, network mamagement, new network architectures, and network security. Diego chairs the ETSI ISG on Network Function Virtualization, and the NFVRG within the IRTF. Apart from this, Diego is a more than acceptable Iberian ham carver, and extremely fond of seeking and enjoying comics, wines, and cheeses.
Georg Mayer, 3GPP CT Chairman
Georg Mayer is the Chairman of 3GPP CT and works for Huawei. His current focus is on the 5G CorNetwork and the coordination of 5G protocol work not only within 3GPP but also towards IETF, ETSI, GSMA and other bodies.
Georg works in telecommunication standards since 1998 and in 3GPP since 2001. Besides other publications he co-authored a book on IMS.
Atsushi Minokuchi, NTT DOCOMO
Atsushi Minokuchi joined NTT DOCOMO in 1996, and has been involved in research and development from 2G (PDC in Japan) through 3G, 4G and is now working towards 5G core network beyond 2020. He has played a key role in 3GPP, i.e. in TSG-CT, TSG-SA, SA1, SA2 meetings. Since 5G activities started, he has been involved in SMARTER and eV2X in SA1 and in NextGen/5GS in SA2. Since March 2015, he has served as a vice chairman of TSG-CT. In NTT DOCOMO, he is leading internal coordination and supervising NTT DOCOMO’s standardization activities in TSG-CT and TSG-SA. Before that, he had also been involved in ITU-T standardization for 10 years from 2001 to 2010 for its work on Systems beyond IMT-2000 as a pre-cursor of LTE/SAE, taking charge of an editor, and in NGMN for 5 years from 2006 to 2011 for the commercial realization of LTE/SAE.
Luca Pesando, Co-chairman of Working Party 1, ITU-T Study Group 13
Luca has a PhD in Particle Physics from the University of Torino and twenty-five years of experience in Information and Communication Technologies with Telecom Italia. He is coordinator of the activities in standardisation for wireline technologies since 2006, managing the participation in the relevant standards bodies in collaboration with the coordinators of the other standardisation areas in the company.
He is co-Chairman of Working Party 1 (IMT2020 or 5G) of SG13 in ITU-T for the study period 2017-2020 and has been previouosly one of the vice-chairmen of the FG IMT2020 for the pre-standard activities.
In ETSI he is Chairman of the M493 WG in TC NTECH and has been previously Chair of the ETSI Project E2NA and the M493. In the past years he has been Vice-President of the Open IPTV Forum. Previously he worked in the optical communications and networking R&D fields, with management roles in internal and external collaboration and consultancy projects. He is inventor for several patents in TIM portfolio.
Luis Jorge Romero, ETSI Director-General
Luis Jorge Romero, Director General of ETSI, has more than 20-years experience in the telecommunications sector. At ETSI he has initiated a global standardization partnership for Machine to Machine communications, oneM2M, has overseen the rapid development of ETSI’s Industry Specification Group on Network Functions Virtualization, and has driven the implementation of the ETSI Long Term Strategy, an ambitious plan to prepare the institute for the future. Previously he has held diverse Director positions in Spain, Morocco and Mexico, predominantly with Telefonica. As Global Director for International Roaming and Standards, and Director of Innovation and Standards, he oversaw Telefonica’s participation in global standardization activities, and participated directly in the work of the Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) Alliance and in the GSM Association (GSMA). Before joining ETSI in July 2011, he held the position of Director General of Innosoft and was also a partner and board member of Madrid-based Innology Ventures.
Sue Rudd, Strategy Analytics Inc.
Sue Rudd has over 25 years’ experience in Mobile Broadband, Voice and Value Added IP services. At Strategy Analytics she analyses and evaluates the potential for: HetNets, Small Cells, C-RAN and virtual RAN ; 5G Network Slicing and new Vertical/Horizontal business cases ; SDN Enabled Services, Telco Cloud and Service Platforms ; NFV impact on Network TCO and Margins ; Video Delivery Optimization and Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) ; Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) and Gi-LAN Services ; OSS and Network Signaling.
Prior to joining Strategy Analytics, she managed market opportunities for companies selling to Telcos, MNOs and ISPs. Sue has worked for leading vendors: Comverse now Xura/Mavenir, Motorola Cellular now Nokia, BBN now Raytheon and Burroughs now UNISYS.
She has an MBA in Operations Mgt. from the Wharton School at Univ. of Pennsylvania an MA in Economics from University of Cambridge UK and did PH.D coursework at MIT.
Nick Sampson, Wireless Access and Core Network Standardisation, Orange
Nick Sampson is responsible for wireless access and core network standardisation activities in Orange Group, encompassing activities organisations such as 3GPP, ETSI, GSMA, IEEE, Wi-Fi Alliance and NGMN. He started his career in telecommunications in Vodafone in 1992, moving to Orange in 1996, working on signalling network design. Nick has participated in standardisation organisations at national and international level for over 20 years, starting with ETSI SMG and UK NICC, then several other organisations including 3GPP and NGMN, and is a past vice-chair of 3GPP TSG SA. He currently represents Orange in GSMA and ETSI, and is vice-chair of ETSI MSG and a member of the ETSI Board.
Kevin Smith, ETSI NGP Chairman
Kevin Smith is Senior Technology Strategist, Vodafone Group R&D. Kevin has worked with mobile Internet technologies since 1999, as a developer, enterprise architect and standards contributor. Since 2007 he has represented Vodafone at industry fora, including W3C, OMA, GSMA and IETF; and chaired several cross-operator and multi-vendor initiatives, including OneAPI and GSMA’s ENCRY and SMART groups. He is the current chair of ETSI ISG NGP (Next Generation Protocols), driving the need for new Internet protocols that can securely sustain a broad range of 5G scenarios.
John Strassner, MEF Orchestration Area Co-Director
Dr. John Strassner joined Huawei as the CTO of the Software Labs for the Americas Research Division in 2011. He is currently a Distinguished Fellow of the TMF, and a Co-Director for the MEF Orchestration Area. Before joining Huawei, he was a tenured professor computer science; past industry positions included VP and Fellow of Motorola and Cisco, and the CSO of Intelliden (a startup bought by IBM). John’s passion is leading and researching disruptive ICT research and solutions that involve autonomics, policy-based management, software architecture and engineering, and AI. John has over 330 refereed journals and publications, and over 68 issued and in-process patents.
Andy Sutton, Former ETSI NGP Chairman, BT
Member of the Programme Committee
Andy Sutton is a Principal Network Architect within BT Architecture and Technology. He is responsible for RAN architecture evolution, mobile backhaul strategy and architecture, and 5G end to end network architecture. He has over 30 years of experience within the telecommunications industry, mainly in radio access, transmission and transport network strategy, architecture and design. During his career Andy has worked for Mercury Communications Ltd, Orange, H3G, EE and BT. Andy is a Visiting Professor with the department of Computing, Science and Engineering at the University of Salford and a research mentor at the 5G Innovation Centre at the University of Surrey. He sits on the industry advisory boards of the EU FP8 H2020 iCirrus project and Tweether project. He contributes to International telecommunications standardisation activities and several industry forums. Andy is a founding member of ETSI ISG NGP and was chair of the group during 2016.
Joan Triay, ETSI NFV TSC Chair
Joan Triay is a research and standardization specialist at DOCOMO Euro-Labs, in Munich, Germany, which he joined in 2012, and where he is currently involved in standardization and research activities spanning different areas such as network virtualization, mobile communication networks, and 5G network management. In the ETSI NFV, Joan is currently serving as the Technical Manager, and previously as the Assistant Technical Manager. He joined the ETSI NFV from the very beginning (2013) and has been participating actively in developing the NFV concepts and standards. Before joining NTT DOCOMO, Joan was in charge of managing the research activities at i2CAT Foundation, in Barcelona, Spain. Prior to that, he also held different research positions in the academia community including visiting researcher positions in USA and UK. Joan holds a Ph.D. in Telematics Engineering (Computer Networks) (2011) from Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Spain.
Dirk Weiler, ETSI Board Chairman
Member of the Programme Committee
Dirk Weiler is Chairman of the ETSI Board and the ETSI IPR Special Committee, the ETSI representative to the European Commission's ICT Standardization Multi‐Stakeholder Platform, Vice Chairman of the German BITKOM Working Group Standardization, member of the CEN‐CENELEC‐ETSI Joint Presidents' Group and a member of the German DIN Presidential Committee FOKUS.ICT. He is Head of Standards Policy in Nokia BellLabs CTO, responsible for standardization policy and membership portfolio. He regularly appears as speaker or moderator in conferences and events about technology, standardization and IPR topics. From 2010‐2014 he was Chairman of the ETSI General Assembly. Until 2006 he held various management positions in development, research, intellectual property, standardization and marketing in Siemens. Since 1988 he has been working actively in standardization on technical as well as board level in various organizations.
He graduated in 1985 as Diplomphysiker from the University of Cologne and the Institute of Nuclear research in Jülich, Germany.
Organising your trip
- Details of how to get to ETSI, local transport and hotels are available HERE
For participants' convenience, ETSI is organising a bus service on Thursday 6 April as follows:
- From Sophia Antipolis referenced hotels to ETSI between 8:00 & 8:40. The timing is the following (please also check the precise timing posted in each hotel lobby):
- Golden Tulip 8:00
- Beachcomber 8:15 (and B&B Hotel Sophia)
- Mercure 8:20
- Ibis 8:25
- Novotel 8:35
- Oméga 8:40